Diagramming Sentences

Sentence Diagrams

~ One Way of Learning English Grammar ~

Sentences from the United States Constitution

Amendment 13: Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.
Lesson 12: 1. The prepositional phrase to their jurisdiction functions as the adverbial modifier of the adjective subject. 2. Whereof is called a relative adverb; it could be replaced by the prepositional phrase of which, in which which is a relative pronoun. The diagonal line is solid on the lower end as an indication of the unexpressed adverbial element of which.
Apologia pro descriptione mea: 1. My diagram assumes that, in our society, convicts are not slaves and that, therefore, the phrase except as a punishment for a crime modifies only servitude, not slavery as well. 2. Apparently as is an expletive here, a word that takes up space in a sentence without adding to the meaning. Its expletive status might be made clearer by understanding except as a conjunction. That would give us except  x  x  as a punishment, where  x  x  stands for it be, and punishment would be a subjective complement; however, I see no need for this. 
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